Yuganaddha Sutta

Hello all,

Does anyone know where i find the commentary for AN4.17.

I read on wikipedia that commentaries say that "fruitful vipassana-oriented practice must still be based upon the achievement of stabilizing “access concentration” (Pāli: upacara samādhi). with regards to vipassana then samatha methods of meditation. Which sounds right and is consistent with some of the what I hear from contemporary teachers. But i’d be interested in reading the actual commentary about this if anyone knows where i can find this particular one.

Here is a letter from Nina Van Gorkom mentioning the Commentary.

Re: Yuganaddha Sutta - In Tandem, and com. notes.

Nina van Gorkom nilo@euronet.nl


Dear Victor and Dan, I quote the sutta in the PTs translation from an old
post. With Co notes. Dan will be interested to see notes on calm and

We read in the Gradual Sayings, Book of the Fours( II, Ch XVI, §10, Coupled)
that Anada said :
Reverend sirs, when anyone, be it monk or nun, proclaaims in my presence
that he has attained arahatship, all such do so by virtue of four factors or
by one of these four. What are they?
Herein, your reverences, a monk develops insight preceded by calm. In him
thus developing insight preceded by calm is born the Way. He follows along
that Way, makes it grow, makes much of it… the fetters are abandoned, the
lurking tendencies come to an end.
Or again, your reverences, a monk develops calm preceded by insight. In him
thus developing calm preceded by insight is born the Way… the lurking
tendencies come to an end.
Yet again, your reverences, a monk develops calm-and-insight coupled. In him
thus developing… the Way is born… the lurking tendencies come to an end.
Once more, your reverences, a monk¹s mind is utterly cleared of perplexities
about dhamma. That is the time, your reverences, when his thought stands
fixed in the very self, settles down, becomes one-pointed, is composed. In
him the Way is born… the lurking tendencies come to an end.

The Co explains that the Way is the first stage of enlightenment. As to the
second factor, the monk is already used to developing insight and then
samadhi arises. As to the third factor, he is aware and considers the
sankharas, jhanafactors, in between the different stages of jhana he enters
and emerges from. As to the fourth factor, he has abandoned the ten
defilements of vipassana. He does not cling to samatha nor to vipassana.

It is interesting that there is no special order, a person¹s way of
development depends on his accumulations.
I discussed calm and insight with A. Supee in India. He reminded me that
whenever we read about calm, it is implied that it goes together with
insight. For some people the factor calm is stronger, for others less
strong. And as Kom explained, when insight is developed there are conditions
for more calm, in a natural way. The sotapanna has more calm than the
ordinary person, because he has less defilements. The sotapanna who has
developed insight has such strong, unshakable confidence in the Triple gem,
and when there are conditions he can have great calm while contemplating the
Buddha¹s virtues. Only ariyans could attain access concentration with this
meditation subject. The person who has attained the third stage of
enlightenment, the anagami, is no longer attached to sense objects, thus,
naturally, he has a great deal of calm.
When we read about the ideal Recluse, he goes forth with the aim to attain
arahatship, and becomes endowed with the highest qualities. Taken into
account that we are further away from the Buddha¹s time, we can draw our
conclusions to what extent all such high qualities are still possible. Then,
when we read about jhanas, we will understand all these passages in their
right perspective. No more doubts whether all of us should develop jhana.

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The pali text of the commentary does not mention the word upacara

(17) 2.Paṭipadāvaggo
170.Dasame samathapubbaṅgamanti samathaṃ pubbaṅgamaṃ purecārikaṃ katvā. maggo sañjāyatīti paṭhamo lokuttaramaggo nibbattati. so ¶ taṃ magganti ekacittakkhaṇikamaggassa āsevanādīni nāma natthi, dutiyamaggādayo pana uppādento tameva āsevati bhāveti bahulīkarotīti vuccati. vipassanāpubbaṅgamanti vipassanaṃ pubbaṅgamaṃ purecārikaṃ katvā samathaṃ bhāveti, pakatiyā vipassanālābhī vipassanāya ṭhatvā samādhiṃ uppādetīti attho.

yuganaddhaṃ bhāvetīti yuganaddhaṃ katvā bhāveti. Tattha teneva cittena samāpattiṃ samāpajjitvā teneva saṅkhāre sammasituṃ na sakkā. Ayaṃ pana yāvatā samāpattiyo samāpajjati, tāvatā saṅkhāre sammasati. Yāvatā saṅkhāre sammasati, tāvatā samāpattiyo samāpajjati. Kathaṃ? Paṭhamajjhānaṃ samāpajjati, tato vuṭṭhāya saṅkhāre sammasati, saṅkhāre sammasitvā dutiyajjhānaṃ samāpajjati. Tato vuṭṭhāya puna saṅkhāre sammasati. Saṅkhāre sammasitvā ¶ tatiyajjhānaṃ…pe… nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasamāpattiṃ samāpajjati, tato vuṭṭhāya saṅkhāre sammasati. Evamayaṃ samathavipassanaṃ yuganaddhaṃ bhāveti nāma.

dhammuddhaccaviggahitanti samathavipassanādhammesu dasavipassanupakkilesasaṅkhātena uddhaccena viggahitaṃ, suggahitanti attho. so, āvuso, samayoti iminā sattannaṃ sappāyānaṃ paṭilābhakālo kathito. yaṃ taṃ cittanti yasmiṃ samaye taṃ vipassanāvīthiṃ okkamitvā pavattaṃ cittaṃ. ajjhattameva ¶ santiṭṭhatīti vipassanāvīthiṃ paccottharitvā ¶ tasmiṃyeva gocarajjhattasaṅkhāte ārammaṇe santiṭṭhati. sannisīdatīti ārammaṇavasena sammā nisīdati. ekodi hotīti ekaggaṃ hoti. samādhiyatīti sammā ādhiyati suṭṭhapitaṃ hoti. Sesamettha uttānatthameva.
Paṭipadāvaggo dutiyo.

It does mention the word ekacittakkhaṇikamaggassa. I can’t read pali but from the words it could mean using momentary (khanika) concentration (ekacitta) as path (magga).

The Visuddhi Magga does recognize momentary concentration

  1. Now, this fivefold happiness, when conceived and matured, perfects the twofold
    tranquillity, that is, bodily and mental tranquillity. When tranquillity is conceived
    and matured, it perfects the twofold bliss, that is, bodily and mental bliss. When bliss
    is conceived and matured, it perfects the threefold concentration, that is,
    momentary concentration, access concentration, and absorption concentration.

Although it only defines citta-visuddhi as the jhanas and access concentration

[587] Now, it was said earlier (XIV.32) that he “should first fortify his knowledge
by learning and questioning about those things that are the ‘soil’ after he has
perfected the two purifications—purification of virtue and purification of
consciousness—that are the ‘roots.’” Now, of those, purification of virtue is the quite
purified fourfold virtue beginning with Pátimokkha restraint; and that has already
been dealt with in detail in the Description of Virtue; (Chs. I and II) and the purification
of consciousness, namely, the eight attainments together with access concentration,
has also been dealt with in detail in all its aspects in the Description of Concentration,
(Chs. III to XIII) stated under the heading of “consciousness” [in the introductory
verse]. So those two purifications should be understood in detail as given there.

But according to Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw, momentary concentration need to taken as included in access concentration

But is it not said in the Commentaries that the term “purification of mind” applies only to access concentration and fully absorbed concentration? That is true; but one has to take this statement in the sense that momentary concentration is included in access concentration.

The wikipedia footnote only mention

According to the Theravada commentarial tradition, which informed the Vipassane movement, while the Nikayas identify that the pursuit of vipassana can precede the pursuit of samatha, a fruitful vipassana-oriented practice must still be based upon the achievement of stabilizing “access concentration” (Pāli: upacara samādhi). The term “access concentration” does not appear in the Nikayas.

which does not necessarily mean the anguttara commentary. It could also be the Visuddhi Magga because the V.M. defines citta-visuddhi as the jhanas and access concentration, which means the bare minimum requirement for citta-visuddhi is access concentration. Which if we take the points above also includes momentary concentration.

Ven. Ledi Sayadaw also explains in his books A Manual of Insight Meditation

Although it is stated as such, the Aṅguttaranikāya Commentary
passage that says: “Vipassanaṃ pubbaṅgamaṃ purecārikaṃ katvā
samathaṃ bhāveti, pakatiyā vipassanālābhī vipassanāya ṭhatvā
samādhiṃ uppādetī’ti attho” simply means that concentration has
been made to arise based on insight. It is not intended to refer to path
concentration. Moreover, it has been expounded in that very
Commentary that “Initially the supramundane path arises in one
who has developed the aforesaid concentration.”

Which means that this passage “Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity preceded by insight.” does not necessarily mean bare insight, but concentration that occurs after someone develops insight. This samadhi is not the same type of samadhi as in jhana and upacara samadhi. This is also mentioned in the footnote of the Vimutti Magga (p. 311)

Sometimes the samatha in (x) is mistakenly equated with that in (y) because the
word used in both instances is serenity (samatha). But they are different. While in the
one samatha of the first meditation (pathamajjhana) by v/ay of suppression abandonment
is meant, in the other samatha of substitution abandonment is meant—Pts. T, 27

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