Vañcaka (Cheating) Dhammas

From a book (1947) by a Sri lankan bhikkhu, the venerable Rerukane Chandavimala MahaThera Rerukane Chandawimala Thero - Wikipedia

In the preface the venerable says…

" There are 38 vangcaka dhammas are mentioned in netthippakarana atthakatha.
But they are mentioned only namely.
There are two tikas for the atthakatha but vangcaka dhammas are not
mentioned in
any of them."

" These arise in a mind that has developed a certain disliking towards
The akusala dhammas disguise

themselves according to the mind’s ‘tendency’ or mentality. ( as the mud
the shape of the object that

pressed onto it.)"

In the book , the venerable describes the dhammas namely mentioned in the
atthakatha, and describes more

dhammas using his knowledge in the abhidhamma.

First , the ones from the atthakatha…

  1. apatikkulasagnamukhena kamacchando vangcethi

One develops the apatikkula sanna → Looking at every living or non-living
object in the same perspective.
Whether the dhathu in his body,in an alien body, rocks , trees, young body,
decayed body,… start to look the

He has no disgust in the things that are disgusting to others.( phlegm,urine
They look just collections of dhathus to him.
He will attend to the ones in need of help, without disgusted of the filth.

But Kamacchanda will disguise itself as apatikkulasanna.
One has liking to the praise , profits etc … gained by helping people.( But
knows this kamacchada is a bad

quality in him)
When theres a person in need , and others do not reach him beacause of the
patikula things associated with

helping ., theres a chance that in the former’s mind the kamacchanda will
, and he helps the person without

feeling any disgust. But he thinks that apatikkula sanna has arose.
It is indeed real hard to distinguish the kusala from the akusala.
The only catch is to see whether this ‘apatikkula sanna’ is still there when
praises and profits are not

associated with the helping.

Another occasion is , a person may not feel disgust of the phlegm,urine etc
you know the lot) of another person

he has some raaga for.The person knows that raaga is ‘bad’ and apatikkula
is ‘good’, he tends to think that

what he has is the apatikkula sanna. But what he ’ gives in’( and gladly
develops) is none other than

As above the catch is to see whether this ‘apatikkula sanna’ prevails with
regarding a person who he has no

raaga for.

  1. patikkulasanna pathirupena vyapado vancethi

One develops patikkula sanna with regarding to dhathus. ( this helps to
with excessive Raga
Whatever regarded beautiful in the normal sense , appears filthy to him.
(eg. the glowing teeth of a pretty person will look as melon seeds glued to
mouth of an empty clay pot)

But vyapada will disguise as patikkulasanna.
One knows vyapada is ‘bad’ and knows tha theres a good thing called
He will sometimes develop the raw vyapada , thinking that what he has is
patikkula sanna. [ story of sour


so checking is needed.

to be continued…

Cheats contd.

  1. samadhimukhena thinamiddhang vangcethi

When one is trying to concentrate , without moving the body, viriya
( the tendency of the untrained mind is towards kamaraaga, not towards
samadhi )
So thinamiddha arises, the one who mistakes this as samadhi gives in to it .
so cheated )

  1. viriyarambhamukhena uddhaccang vangcethi

One over-tries to calm the mind, over-tries to understand things
he thinks that he’s developing viriya, but instead he’s cheated by uddhacca.

  1. sikkhakamathamukhena kukkuccang vangcethi

One who likes for moral restraint has the kusala - sikkhakamatha
But when one starts to worry about the things done , thinking whether they
allowed,not-allowed etc will develop the dvesha(dosa) rooted
kukkucca., mistaking it for sikkhakamatha.

  1. ubhayapakkha santhiranamukhena vicikicchang vangchethi

This dhamma is profound, and expands into large areas ie, merits/demerits,
kamma, rebirth, world systems, beings, jhanas etc…
This is initially ‘too much’ for an untrained mind, limited mind.
( to see the micro-organisms use of a microscope is needed, cant do it with
naked eye)
So there are more things to develop mentally and physically.
One feels that ’ I have to know all the reasons, all the scenarios, all the
logic,…then I’ll start going along the noble path’ … he mistakes this
the kusala dhamma ubhayapakkha santhirana, but its none other than the
His development stops, he starts to worry about things that will not lead to

vicikiccha ( in true appearence or in disguise) is unavoidable and a great
Beings have to develop more and more saddha to fight with and find out
(saddha indriya)

to be continued.

  1. ittanitta samuppekkhana mukhena sammoho vangceti.

the kusala dhamma ittanitta samuppekkhana - untrained mind takes pride,
delights …etc in ‘itta’ happenings,( fame, gains,praise etc… ) and will
entertain anger ,hatred towards ‘unitta’ happenings.(fear, shame, blame,
sorrow etc…)
The mind without tanha, conceit stays unwavered and steady in all
This quality is complete only in arahants, but can be there in a certain
degree in puthujjanas and sekhas.

But sometimes, simply because failing to understand the true nature of
particular itta and anitta happenings, one stays ‘unwavered’ and calm. He
might think that this is his kusala , but that is the sammoha akusala

  1. attagnuta mukhena attani aparibhavena maano vangceti.

the kusala dhamma attagnuta - taking good care of one self , looking after
oneself, taking the full responsibility of oneself with reasoning is a
kusala dhamma praised by buddha in many occasions.

but the akusala maana can cheat by taking the shape of that quality,one can
mistake this attani aparibhavena maana in him for the former kusala
dhamma and let it develop.


  1. vimansa mukhena hetupatirupaka pariggahena miccaditthi vanceti.

kusala - vimansa ( inquiry?) is related to panna, vimansa is a very useful
‘tool’ .
This is praised by the buddha.
The obstacle here is the limitations in one’s self.
Due to these inherited limitations one can be cheated .

Who stands on a ditthi ( either samma or micca ) will begin to see many
conditions that supports his ditthi.
[ when one believes in god ,when inquiring, he will see supporting ‘facts’
when one does not believe in a god he will see supporting ‘facts’ for it…
when one has attasanna ( soul-perception) , he
when one has anattasanna…
when one believes in kamma , rebirth…
when one does not believe in kamma, rebirth… ]

So the micca ditthi akusala dhamma will cheat as the vimansa kusala dhamma,
it will show solid ‘facts’ ( hetupatirupaka pariggahena)

  1. virattatha patirupakena satthesu adayapanththa vangceti.

kusala - virattatha , this is non-attachment , non-bondedness to
spouses,offsprings,siblings,friends etc.
This kusala is triggered from not having the love and care for them but
the danger in the samsara.
(greater samsara bhaya )

the akusala adayapanatha is that feeling no (duty of)care , responsibility
One who has the desire to develop kusalas , can mistake this akusala as the
former kusala, and can try to develop the disguised akusala.

The point here is to know the kusala as the kusala , and the akusala as the
akusala.So one cannot get cheated by akusala.


  1. anunnatha patisevana patirupathaya kamasukhallikanuyogo vangceti

In the Order , Buddha has allowed certain ‘allowances’ so the holylife can
lived smoothly and effectively (ie civara , pindapatha, senasana,
gilanapaccaya). This has to be done with restraint and responsibility.
Anunnatha patisevana is the kusala that the ‘consuming’ is only done with
‘allowed’ and ‘recommended’.
But in some occasions priority may waver.One may only concentrate on what is
allowed and not allowed.
And when some’thing’ is allowed, he would give full throttle for it. His
priority is not living the holylife effectively , but to make full use of
Due to the ‘fear’ of akusala, he thinks that this is the skill of anunnatha
patisevana, but its none other than the disguised kamasukhallikanuyoga.

In the lay life, the person who is cheated by kamasukhallikanuyoga ( he does
recognize that this is kamasukhallikanuyoga) begins to think…“in many
occasions the buddha has adviced and allowed the lay people to earn
live comfortably, have and look after children…” and he will dive
He misses the point here and stops himself from ( the possibility of )
the noble fruits of the very hard-earned human life.

  1. ajivaparisuddhi patirupathaya asamvibhaga seelatha vangceti.

It is the way of the Noble Order that there should be ‘sharing of the
The monks who are more successful in receiving alms share it with the
who are less-successful.

Ajiva parisuddhi is , not having anything to do with dusseela ( who lacks
restraint ), alajji (who have no shame in doing unskillful unmeritorious
deeds )
Asamvibhaga seelatha is, not sharing/giving anything to others, liking to
consume everything by oneself.
This may cheat as the ajiva parisuddhi – ie…" Oh, I have no business with
those alajji, dusseela ones. If I share these , then my ajiva parisuddhi
will be
in danger"
So checking is needed. Prejudice must be chased away from the play.


1 Like

  1. samvibhaga seelata patirupataya miccajivo vangceti.

‘Sharing of the resources’ is the recommended way in the noble order. This
is the skill ‘samvibhaga seelata’.
But it is not allowed for a monk to give to laypeople other than the gifts
of the dhamma( dhammadanas).
Sometimes monks tend to gift laypeople with the commodities received as
alms., to please them.( so , as they are please with monks , they will more
and more aims in return)
But this is miccajiva. A monk can ‘feel’ making the laypeple please by
giving material gifts and worldly gifts is samvibhaga seelatha, but its
miccajiva( wrong livelihood? )
In this occcasion the lay followers get pleased and entertain a liking and
friendship with the monk, but the point is this type of particular dhammas
can be associated with even a thief/criminal who helps them, does
favourable things for them.
This may appear to build confidence in the lay followers’ minds but its is
a type of tanha associated with piti.
(sapitika tanha).
As always the idea here is to distinguish between the kusala ad the
No patigha should be entertained when the akusala is detected.

  1. asamsaggaviharata patirupataya asamgahaseelata vangceti

The kusala asamsagga viharata is , not mixing up with the unsuitable,
unallowed. For the monks , mixing up with the lay followers is unsuitable.
Mixing in the sense, doing the unskillful talks ( the 32, ie…rajakata,
corakata …), frivoulous gossip…etc.Asamsagga viharata is a quality that
should be developed by monks/yogins.

the akusala asamgahaseelata - > not doing anything for, ignoring the lay
followers altogether.Not giving common courtesy, not gifting with dhamma
So this asamgaha seelatha can be mistaken for the asamsaggaviharata.
This type of internal cheat happens mostly to the yogins who have gone
forth with a lot of confidence, who are diligent in observing the holylife.
So this type of akusala must be carefully detected.


  1. samgaha seelata patirupataya ananulomika samsagga vangceti.

kusala samgahaseelata - gifting the (lay …etc)followers with the dhamma,
gifting the allowed ( brethern…) with helpful ‘materials’ , acting with
for everyone, acting with compassion for the others…
This samgahaseelatha is a quality developed by samana/yogins.

akusala ananulomikasamsagga - the mixing up with unallowed, unsuitable and
affairs therein.

The cheating of ananulomikasamsagga as samgahaseelatha happens not in the
of crooks but ones who are thinking that they are actually developing a
This can be detected as,

One will ‘feel’ like much metta and samgahaseelatha for some rich
the people ( spouse,offsprings, etc…) of such followers.
But He won’t feel that with the poor ones.

When cheated ,the tendency to liking the worldly affairs , taking part in
etc … with those rich ones , can be detected.

with ‘real’ samgahaseelatha those would not arise.

  1. saccavadita patirupataya pisunavacata vangceti.

saccavadita - speaking the truth, no lies, no half-truths.
pisunavacata- slandering

regardless of the truth or fallacy in it, slandering is akusala and
Sometimes ones who do slandering , internally get cheated as thinking ’ this
the quality of telling the truth and that is a kusala ’ .

  1. apisunavadita patirupataya anatthakamata vangceti.

The evil of slandering is the intention to mess with the common
understanding of
a one with another.
It is not a ‘papakamma’ to tell warn about a person ( or rather the evil
qualities of such person ) to another for the well being of the ‘another’.
It is a good quality to warn ( and protect ) somebody from a possible
arm.( a
sappurisa quality )
Intention is the key here.

Being ‘silent’ in such an occation ‘thinking’ " I will not say
is a stage which needs to be further examined.
In some minds there is this very minute ‘anusaya dhatu’ left that they
have the secret delight in seeing harm happening to others.
( anattha - harm ).
This cheats them .
The point here is to check whether what’s operating is genuine apisunavacata
a cheating akusala.
( and to be aware of the kusala as kusala , and the akusala as akusala )


  1. piyavadita patirupataya catukammata vangceti

kusala piyavadita - when communicating with others it should be done in a
pleasant , unharmful way.

akusala catukammata - talking to please others in order to get favours, get
liking towards oneself. Some go to the extent of insulting, degrading
oneself to
keep the others on the higher position, so to please them.

This can cheat as piyavadita.

  1. mitabhanata patirupataya asammodana seelata vangceti

kusala mitabhanata - talking only as needed, with great care. Most probably
results in less and less talk.

akusala asammodana seelata - hating others, not having the tendency to

this akusala may cheat as mitabhanata.

  1. sammodana seelata patirupataya maya satheyyangca vangceti

kusala sammodana seelata - communicating pleasently with others with metta.

akusala maya - hiding own defilements and bad qualities

akusala satheyya - showing off that one has the good qualities that he

One who has the intention to hide own faults talks about people who have
fault condemning them.So the listeners think that this ‘guy’ doesnt have
One who likes to say that he has such and such (non-existant) good
praises those qualities and advices others to have such good qualities, so
listners may assume that this ‘guy’ must have such good qualities.

this maya and satheyya can cheat in the disguise of sammodana seelata.


  1. niggahavadita patirupataya parusavacata vangceti

kusala niggahavadita - Condemning wrongful actions done by a person who is
the care ( ie student ), [focus is on the action not the person] as a help
guiding the person. [ by ‘harshly’ condemning the wrong action ]

akusala parusavacata - this is using of harsh words.
The internal tendency and the delight in using harsh words may cheat as
niggahavadita.So the condemning with harsh words will focus on the person
than on the deed.

the point is to see whether , the arisen dhamma is either a kusala or an
akusala, and being honest in understanding it.

  1. papagarahita patirupataya paravajjanupassita vangceti

kusala papagarahata - this is again condemning the evil deeds. And it is not
done by aversion towards the evil deed or the evil doer . Papagarahata is
(even) by the Buddha.

But some people may entertain dosa for the evil deeds done by others. And
is a severe akusala ( to let develop) on the part of the former.They give in
lot of dosa regarding others and their evil deeds., thereby abusing their
Some may have the (hidden) tendency to search for others’ wrong doings and
subsequent condemnation.
This is the akusala of liking to condemn others - paravajjanupassita.
and not the condemning of evils without dosa towards the deed or the

and again the point is to find and be aware of any hidden akusala dhammas.

(I am not very sure about whether ‘condemn’ is the right english word for
pali ‘garaha’ and ‘niggaha’…or is it ‘insulting’?)
23. kulanuddayata patirupataya kulamacchariyam vangceti

[friends , pls put the best english word for pali ‘macchariya’… ]

kusala kulanuddayata - The monks/yogins/samanas should develop the
compassion, anukampaa ( empathy ? ) etc for the lay people( kula ) who
supply them with the basic commodities. Samanas get the help from the
'kula’s to live the holylife effectively, and the kulas get the dhammadana,
inspiration and guidence from the samanas.( the simile is how the bee
collects nectar without harming the flower )

akusala kulamacchariya - the akusala macchariya regarding the kulas can
arise in a samana. He may have the internal tendency to dislike the idea
that the kulas who give the courtesy to him , doing the same to other
samanas. But this kulamacchariya can disguise itself by appearing in the
form of ’ protecting the kulas from unknown dusseela monks’.

  1. avasaciratthitikamata mukhena avasamacchariyam vanceti.

[ and for ‘avasa’ too…]

kusala avasaciratthitikamata - protecting and maintaining the avasas so the
conditions favourable for the holylife will prevail for a long time.

akusala avasamacchariya - not liking to share the avasa with fellow monks.
Being restless at the idea of sharing the avasa with others. These types of
cheating happen in minds of solitary monks.( The point is to see the
danger as the hidden akusalas are being developed(upasampada) mistaking
them as for kusalas.And another main point to recall again is that these
are not the ‘bad’, ‘unpleasant’ types of people but the ones who have the
intention to live the holylife accordingly and to develop kusala. )

  1. dhammaparibandha pariharana mukhena dhammamacchariyam vangceti.

kusala dhammaparibandhapariharana - protecting the dhamma knowledge .
Sometimes ones may wish to study dhamma in order to ‘discover’ the ‘loop
holes’, ‘business interests’, potential ‘business’ ideas ,gateways, methods
for winning popularity contests…etc and sometimes with the direct
intention of harming the dhamma, and subsequently harm the propagation of
true dhamma. Detecting these motives ( the motive! , focus is not on the
person ) and being cautious in such situations is
dhammaparibandhapariharana. [ pariharana - handling ( with care)].

akusala dhammamacchariya - and again!.. macchariya regarding the dhamma
knowledge…, not liking the idea of spreading and sharing it…as all forms
of macchariyas are.


  1. dhammadesanabhirati mukhena bhassaramata vangceti.

kusala dhammadesanabhirati - ‘liking’ to do dhamma katha , preachings

akusala bhassaramata - ‘talkative’-ness with useless thiracchina talks. (
useless talks with a ‘dhamma’ wrapper )

  1. gananuggahakarana mukhena samganikaramata vangceti.

kusala gananuggahakarana - maintaining ‘anuggaha’ to others.
(anuggaha- helping,assisting,progressive company
gana- groups etc… egroups? )

akusala samganikaramata - mere ‘social’-ness , hidden attachment to company
and social activities.

when cheated by this the samanas divert from the essencial components of
effective living, ie study, samatha & vipassana…

  1. punnakamata patirupataya kammaramata vangceti.

kusala punnakamata - ‘desire’ to do good deeds(punna).
( in order to maintain a hiccup-free lifeflux so the internal search for
truth can be effectively continued.)

akusala kammaramata - desire in building and construction works of temples,
ponds, aramas…etc.
Some samanas got the hidden tendency to attach to these types of work. And
also got the hidden tendency to divert from study of the
dhamma,contemplation,dhammadesana,samatha & vipassana.
So cheated they develop an unskillful dhamma thinking that its a skill .(
punnakamata )


  1. samvega patirupataya cittasantapo vangceti

samvega - the (g)nana that sees the dukkha in the world as a ‘bhaya’ and a

cittasantapa - the sadness in the mind, on dukkhas in the life/s of oneself
others ( relatives, friends, ppl who have interest…)

samvega is not associated with dosa . It is what triggers the search for
and renunciation.
citta santapa is an akusala associated with dosa.
The check is to observe the situation on seeing the dukkhas faced by neutral

  1. saddhaluta patirupataya aparikkhata vangceti

saddaluta - liking to see persons with high virtue, liking association of
liking treating them.

aparikkhata - Most people may show a face of high virtue just for enjoying
high gains associated with it.
venerating all of them without actually finding out the facts is not a
this may cheat as saddhaluta.

  1. vimamsana patirupataya assaddhiyam vangceti

vimamsana - inquiring, searching in order to take examples of the lifestyles
virtues of venerable ones.

assaddhi - Not liking to see, associate,venerate persons with high qualities

when cheated by this one’s time ‘expires’ only and simply(uselessly) for
false ‘viamamsana’.


  1. attadhipateyyata patirupataya garunam anusasaniya appadakkhinaggahita

attadhipateyyata - Giving the due careful consideration for the facts spoken
taught by others., thereby taking the takable and leaving out the

garunam anusasaniya appadakkhinaggahita - Not taking the advice of teachers.
‘know all’ type. Associated with atimaana and thambha ( non-flexibility ) .
refined form this may cheat as attadhipateyya.

  1. dhammadhipateyyata patirupataya sabrahmacarisu agaarawam vangceti

dhammadhipateyyata - Keeping the dhamma study, seela and bhavana at the top,
first priority, above the rest.

agaaravam sabrahmacarisu - not giving the respect and care for the
sabrahmacarins ( samanas who practice holylife with one )( other samanas in
sangha community)
The person may isolate himself from the brethern , even without doing the
essential sangha karmas, vinaya karmas,.This will be disadvantageous for the
cheated mind.



  1. Lokadhipateyyata patirupataya attani dhammeca paribhavo vangceti

Lokadhipateyyata - No one can ‘customize’ the world according to his/her
One has to adjust his/her lifestyle so he/she can live without conflict.

attani dhammeca paribhavo -

When ‘adjusting with the world’ the moral decipline and qualities should not

Theres the possibility of the internal cheat that tendency to go along the
modernisation and the subsequent adjusting may result in the harm to the

  1. mettayana mukhena raago vangceti.

raga as the metta - > refer to visuddhimagga for a story regarding this

  1. karunayana mukhena soko vangceti.

sorrow as compassion

  1. muditavihara patirupataya pahaso vangceti

mudita - opponent of jealousy…

pahasa- the ‘sapitika tanha’ based on the ‘subha’ arammanas of satva and

  1. upekkhavihara patirupataya kusalesu dhammesu nikkhittachandata vangceti

kusalesu dhammesu nikkhittachandata - ‘losing hope’ in kusala
kamma/kusalacchanda…the cheated can live without ‘trying’ for dhammastudy,
bhavana…he thinks hes developing upekkha.


Theres a chance that even the writer may be under the influence of a
The Citta is so diverse and the number of cheating dhammas is incalculable.
The point is to see the cheating ability of the mind , ! and accept it, be
of it, and beware.


Vangchaka akusala dhamma → cheats as #kusala dhamma]

Lobha → cheats as

# paratthakamatha ( liking to serve for the welfare for others)
# dathukamatha ( liking to donate)
#kruthagnatha ( not forgetting the help previously got, gratitude )
#apacitikamatha ( showing gratitude for teachers…)
#anukulatha ( obeying )
#nekkammatha ( getting rid of material possessions)
#dhammadesanakamatha ( liking to preach )
#shikshakamatha ( liking for virtue )
#alpecchatha ( living with minimal requirements )
#vicheyyadanatha ( donating after examining the facts )
#santhuttitha ( being satisfied with what is possessed or achieved )
#paranuddayatha ( forgot this meaning)
#punyakamatha ( liking to do meritorious deeds)

to catch these one has to see whether they stay the same when conditions
does the liking to donate still exist when the returns and praises are
are we showing the gratitude to expecting something in return…

Raga → cheats as

#metta ( loving kindness, amity )
#karuna( compassion)
#saddha (confidence, faith) [this is regarding (confidence on) individual
bhikkus or teachers]

the person will give in to the disguised raga , mistaking as he’s
cultivating mettha etc…

Dosa → cheats as

#mithabhanitha(talking minimally )
#paapagarahatha ( insulting the sinful deeds )
#patikkulasanna( contemplation of filthyness)
#aniccasanna( contemplation on impermanence)

when seeing a snake attacking a pray, one feels sorry for the pray and may
attack the snake thinking hes saving

the pray from the violence(himsa) done by the snake. ( applies for most

Mana → cheats as

#nihathamanatha ( modesty )
#gnana ( knowing )

the one who practices to get rid of mana , sometimes ends up in a nested
mana where he takes pride in his

‘less-mana’ ness , and feels hostile towards people who have mana.

thina middha → cheat(s) as


eg- I will not do this ,as I like the welfare of others I will let others
do it and get merit for themselves.

Kukkucca → cheats as


Oh, I should have cultivated this virtue earlier.

Oh, what a pity that they had to suffer like this

Ditti , mana, vichikicca cheat as knowledge,

everyone who has a ditthi(view) about something thinks that it is the right
wisdom, right knowledge.
Who has mana ( wrong measurement ) thinks it is right evaluation and
Whos in doubt , thinks this is his knowledge and this inquiring is due to
his wisdom.

according to Netthippakarana Atthakatha there are 38 vangchaka dhammas
which trouble yogins.
some of them are…

kamacchanda cheats as apatikkula sanna
vyapada cheats as patikkula sanna
thina midda cheats as samadhi
uddhacca cheats as viriya - [ ‘thinkers’ are really cheated this way ]
kukkuccha cheats as shikshakamatha
vichikicca cheats as ubhayapakkha santhirana [as looking at ‘both sides of
the story’ or [ie. after I really get to

know what this is, I will practice dhamma]
sammoha cheats as itthanittha samupekkhana [ one treats everything equally
, oblivious to the nature of them]
karunavirahitha cheats as viratthatha [ compassion-less ness cheats as
lust-less ness]
pahasa cheats as mudithavihara [ lusty-rapture cheats as muditha ]
kusalesu dhammesu nikkhittha chandatha cheats as upekkhavihara [ the
decreased desire for the wholesome

deeds and dhamma cheats as equinamity]

this youtube video shows the venerable Rerukane Chandavimala MahaThera and includes his cremation
it is in Singhalese if any of our sri lankan members wish to summarize.