Relevant to Theravada and interacting with the secular world, when it comes to epistemology, check out "Skepticism and The Veil of Perception" by Michael Huemer

This is NOT a Buddhist book in any way, and the author is not a Buddhist. However, in my experience, the majority of people either believe subjective idealism, or related things that are pretty much the same, like phenomenalism, etc. or they get far away from that silliness, but get stuck at representational realism. Thus, being Theravada, which is a form of direct realism, can feel alienating, when discussing these things with anyone else. The sense is that others feel you are stuck on some kind of outmoded understanding of reality that has no support in contemporary times.

It seems no one in contemporary philosophy supports direct realism. In fact, the very term has become a pejorative, and is usually rendered “naive realism”, or similar. But I finally found a respectable philosopher who makes a really strong case for it. On the macro level, it is compatible with Theravada, broadly speaking, as both agree that we are seeing the outside world, while the vast majority of philosophies say that we never see the outside world (representational realism), or that it doesn’t even exist (subjective idealism, phenomenalism, many others), or other absurd conclusions. When we get down to dhammas, and all the other specifics of Theravada, there’s no reason to make a comparison. Hence, why this is in the Lounge category.

On a side note, the author has also written extensively on morality, and supports it being an innate thing that can be demonstrated to actually exist as part of what makes up a human. While there surely are some crossovers on simple things like the five precepts, I doubt it matches up significantly with more in depth Theravada morality, however, in a world where the majority of people seem to be falling for moral relativism, it is refreshing to see someone making a strong case for morality as more than just a cultural artefact or some other nonsense. That said, I think Huemer is actually on the same page as the Buddha in at least that the five precepts are universal, and have always been so (though they might disagree on the intoxicants one, depending on how strict it is interpreted). Though I’ve not read enough of his work to say for sure.

The five aggregates, the five senses, 32 body parts, relief (nirodha) etc can be known directly.

The fact is they have no idea what to look into. Only a Sammasambuddha is able to find the essential dhamma and make it into Dhamma that we now know as Buddhism.

When people cannot fathom something, it becomes a sour fruit. And people as usual go around enjoying their lives.

Morality is the laws that keep harmony and free from self-inflicted pain and causing pain to each other. Pain is the essential part of morality to avoid.

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I remember, one of the Nyanarama Thera’s books begins with advising meditators to be aware of the terms used when talking with Commoners.

May be same theory applies when a Theravadin talks with Non-theravadins.

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Yes, good to communicate in common terms.

Anything that exists in reality or the nature is dhamma. A Sammasambuddha (the perfectly Enlightened One) does not reveal everything in the nature to the monks because He is supposed to show the path to freedom, not back to entanglement (asava).

This is Dhamma:
“Because, monks, it is not related to the goal, it is not fundamental to the holy life, does not conduce to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, tranquility, higher knowledge, enlightenment or Nibbana. That is why I have not revealed it.” SN 56.31

Read more: The Parable of the Simsapa Leaves (beliefs, life) - Buddhism -Buddha teachings, Karma, rebirth, Samsara, Nirvana - City-Data Forum

Reality is different from perception or perceived reality. Perception is view, one’s views and collective views (cultural phenomena). Hence, dhamma as the nature (the reality) is not philosophy.

Bhāvanā-maya Paññā is understanding of the nature of body and mind (paṭiccasamuppāda).

Bhāvanā-maya Paññā is Yathabhuta nanadassana.